Archive for the ‘Non Profits’ Category

Requiem

April 28, 2017

My heart is a going pitter patter reading the letter again, reliving it all. No. My heart is racing like a jack hammer! Remembering. A sexual assault. By my manager. Samuel Musa. While working at Oxfam GB.

That was in August 2010. I wrote the letter below to Barbara Stocking in desperation more than a year later.

Just like I searched desperately for legal support in Nigeria and when I couldn’t find any I went to search the UK in 2012. I spoke to so many lawyers. Every last  one of them asked me whether I had worked in the UK.

“I was based in Abuja. The only time I came to the UK was for that country directors conference where the assault happened.”

And they all said –

“Sorry. You’re not eligible to appear before the UK employment tribunal.”

Eventually I found a UK lawyer that said she might have been able to help me  but….

…we were already just days away from the statute of limitations for sexual assault. There was no way she could prepare and file the paper work in time.

I let it go then. Focused on putting myself back together again. It wasn’t the first time that man woman palaver (as we euphemistically call it in Nigeria) had terminated my job.

So this is the letter I wrote to Barbara Stocking after they confirmed my termination, as I was facing the loss of my home – after losing my job, my dad, my cat, my dog, my self esteem, my confidence. 

I stumbled across it looking for something else all together and it all just came back. I’d pushed the whole incident to the far recesses of my mind.  (My therapist gonna have something to say about that.) At first I cringed thinking maybe I was whining in the letter but as I read it I started to feel kinda good. I wrote from my heart. I spoke my truth. That’s all. Nothing to be ashamed of.

 

 

 

April 28, 2012

Dear Barbara,

It’s over a year now since I left your employ. I don’t know if you even noticed. Oxfam GB is such a big place. I don’t imagine you could possibly keep up with all your employees and I wasn’t there long enough. It wasn’t till my orientation at Oxford office in August 2010, almost 10 months after I started working for you that I actually started to understand the organization and my role. One important lesson I take away from my experience at Oxfam GB is to orient employees quickly, capably and to install controls to make sure the system works.

But that’s not why I write you. I’m writing to you because I believe the woman I met in August 2010 is a just, fair and above all compassionate person. There was nothing fair, just or compassionate about the way I was summarily dismissed from Oxfam GB in November 2010 or the way I was treated during my subsequent appeal. I tried so hard to reach Penny Lawrence. I remember her telling us during the orientation that she was always available to help and advice us with our problems and issues. She never spoke to me.

The 2 week visit in August 2010, my first to the UK was also where my trouble started. My line manager Mr. Samuel Musa, deputy regional director for West Africa at the time sexually assaulted me in his hotel room. Worried that my job, my working relationships and Oxfam GBs reputation could be in jeopardy, I didn’t listen to advice of friends to report the incident to the police. Instead I went to Martin Knops to treat my own pain and trauma and on his advice reported the incident to Catherine Layton then in the Human Resource department. I told her I was reporting ‘just in case’ Samuel tried to victimize me I wanted someone to know..

I realize now I should have made that report for a number of reasons. After all it wasn’t sexual harassment I was reporting. I was reporting a crime; sexual assault is after all a criminal offence. Of course all of us worked for Oxfam. Neither Catherine nor Martin suggested I report to the police. Catherine actually advised I speak to Samuel. Which I did. Eventually. It was almost a month later before I was able to talk to him on the phone about it. I told Catherine about the call. Because I had asked for assurance during the call and he didn’t give any I followed up with an email. He ignored it.

It had taken a whole lot of effort on my part to talk to him about it in the first place. I wasn’t comfortable raising the issue with him again. I did discuss with Catherine how we could address institutional sexual harassment. I’ve seen and experienced a lot of behavior in Oxfam GB’s Africa offices that would easily qualify for sexual harassment in the west and UK. I wasn’t the only victim. I felt that as Oxfam GB’s gender lead in West Africa I could have a wider institutional impact on the matter instead of making it all about me. I also didn’t want to be the lone female shouting ‘rape’. I had a lot of confused feelings.

Of course I was deeply traumatized by the experience. It was difficult working with Samuel after that. I had flash backs every time I saw an email from him, or had to speak with him on the phone and when I saw him late September in Dakar. I tried to be brave and strong but I was really uncomfortable and jumpy. Still with Catherine’s question about whether he knew his attention was unwanted ringing in my head I reiterated to him again I did not want his attention and asked for assurance he would never try to ‘make a pass at me’ again. But he didn’t make a pass at me the first time, it wasn’t a seduction or a wooing or ongoing sexual harassment at work; it was a traumatic and unexpected physical attack.

I ignored my pain and stepped up my efforts at work with some idea that if I just did my best my job would be safe. With 20/20 hind sight I see my mistake. There is no way I could have spoken to him about the incident in the terms that I did that he could do other than try to get rid of me as soon as possible. Anything else would have been literally working under the threat of an imminent report from me. Still I hoped, this was Oxfam GB after all, an international humanitarian agency with rules, surely I was safe.

On November 23, 2010, a Wednesday, Samuel Musa arrived Abuja from Dakar and handed me a letter summarily terminating my contract without reason. He gave me 2 days notice to vacate the office premises and immediately repossessed all Oxfam GB equipment including laptop and handsets making it difficult for me to reach anybody within the organization. My employment contract governed by Nigerian Law says that summary dismissal is in accordance with internal guidelines. Under these guidelines I am entitled to a weeks’ notice that I am being considered for summary dismissal. Under Nigerian law I am entitled to two weeks’ notice.

The law wasn’t upmost on my mind when I received the letter of termination. I was distraught that I was about to lose my job at the hands of the man who had sexually assaulted me less than 3 months before. I was in no emotional state for the appeal and under too much emotional distress by then to focus on that. The entire process became a sexual harassment investigation rather than an appeal of my wrongful termination. At the end of the emotionally devastating process where I had to re-live my assault again I was informed there was no corroboration to my allegations of sexual assault and my dismissal was in accordance with Nigerian law. That’s all.

Kathleen McGarva who handled my sexual assault complaint and my appeal (I wonder if that was proper?) decided that the email I wrote to Samuel and my correspondence with Catherine Layton and Martin Knops were not sufficient corroboration of my story and chose to accept Samuel’s version of the story which had even less corroboration than mine. He admitted I was in his room but unsurprisingly denied the course of events or that we went up together. He further claimed he ignored my email because he didn’t know what I was talking about. After denying my appeal Katherine said Oxfam GB would talk to him to find out how he could have handled the situation better. That sounded a lot like I was the lying trouble maker.

In April 2011 I finally wrote Katherine asking about the outcome of that exercise with Samuel. Was he punished? Was he queried? Was he reprimanded? I received her response on April 6, 2011 a Wednesday and was considering my reaction to send the following Monday when I was informed on Saturday April 9, 2011 my father died. I never did get a chance to react to Katherine’s last email after that news.

Katherine’s April email suggested that Oxfam GB were not interested in getting rid of a sexual predator in their employ much less how his actions had affected me or what I was going through personally. Oxfam GB seemed more interested in protecting themselves and I was the villain not the victim but it happened to me so I know what happened. In August 2011 I came to the UK and filed a criminal incident report with the Thames Valley Police accusing Samuel Musa of criminal sexual assault. They believed me but needed corroborating evidence to successfully prosecute. They also said if I had reported earlier there could have requested the hotels CCTV footage for corroboration. Still there is an incident report and number that it may serve as evidence should anyone else report Samuel for a similar thing.

I’m sure I wasn’t his first sexual assault and maybe not his last. Maybe he has been sexually exploiting women he managed? It is interesting that the Africa leadership teams have so few women. It was curious that Samuel resigned abruptly shortly after the police investigators visited the Oxfam GB offices. It may have been a coincidence. Did somebody else report him? What could HR have done differently? The fact that there was even a hint of criminal sexual assault in which the preponderance of evidence, thin though it was nevertheless was on my side should have raised enough doubt to make him justify his reasons for summary dismissal.

After my experience with Oxfam GB I really didn’t want to work for any other organization. This is not the first time I have had to make a career move or lose a job because of man woman trouble as we call it euphemistically in Nigeria. I had thought that I would be safe working with an international organization that had rules about such things. I have been sadly disappointed, in the time since my dismissal I have met and spoken to almost a dozen women with similar experiences. Male managers at INGOs are getting away with sexual abuse in the workplace, women are wrongfully losing jobs, some get stuck in court for years and exhaust their savings, others just don’t want to talk about it in public, still others are too busy trying to make ends meet to fight a foreign Goliath.

I’m a lawyer by training. I opened a small law firm instead of getting another job in the international development field. My 1 year experience at Oxfam GB was exhausting both emotionally and physically. I figure that being my own boss will reduce my vulnerability to sexual assault in the workplace. My practice focuses exclusively on women’s right and expanding legal protection from violence through litigation and legal precedent. I’m building a social enterprise to sustain the practice and my reputation as a writer. Kathleen was right; Oxfam GB didn’t break any Nigerian laws. I was the one that sent that legal opinion on Nigerian labor law to Samuel in October 2010.

Still I found the internal procedure for summary termination on Oxfam GB site confusing. My contract says internal procedure will apply in dismissal yet the site refers back to ‘local laws’. Meanwhile, my contract already says Nigerian law applies. Without knowing the in house rules for summary dismissal that clause of the contract is misleading. When I read it while negotiating my employment terms I reasonably thought it meant rules other than Nigerian law applied. I thought I was protected from unfair or wrongful dismissal and sexual victimization a common enough fear in Nigeria under our poorly applied and interpreted laws. Apparently I was wrong.

Why am I writing to you now?

An executive coach and consultant I worked with advised me to write to you personally and let you and Oxfam GB know exactly what is going on with me before proceeding with any further action. He is optimistic that Oxfam GB will do the right thing. I am hopeful that you Barbara will. I feel I was bullied by a big bad corporation, except Oxfam GB is supposed to be a ‘humanitarian’ organization, one of the ‘good guys’. How could they preach global love and charity and leave me out in the cold like this? Are Oxfam’s values just corporate jargon? I still wonder how I can possibly engage in a legal battle with a corporate behemoth like Oxfam GB that has more money and more lawyers than I can ever hope to. I’m intimidated from even trying but feel the injustice keenly.

I’m sitting in the eye of a hurricane right now. I have suffered terribly because of the assault and even more during and after the loss of my job. I’ve lost almost everything because of Samuel Musa and Oxfam GBs actions; my job, my health insurance, my father, who was my dependant and couldn’t continue diabetes treatment after I lost my health insurance and now I am about to lose my home. My small law practice is young and growing but even that is under threat.

If Catherine Layton, or Martin Knops or any other Oxfam GB employee had advised me to report to the police as soon as I described a sexual assault there may have been CCTV footage showing us arriving and me leaving his room and maybe corroboration of my ‘allegations’. There may have been witnesses available for trained questioning by the police. Dozens of Oxfam GB people were in the lobby that night when we left. Samuel Musa himself would have been available for the police to interrogate. If Samuel Musa had not been allowed to dismiss me without reason after sexually assaulting me I may still have my father, my house, my cat and my life.

I am writing this to you now because I was grievously injured by your employees and former employee’s actions and summarily and wrongfully dismissed without reason from my position as CD Nigeria programs and I feel that Oxfam GB my employers did not do enough to protect me or prevent the injury and subsequent suffering. It has taken me this long and many hours of consultation with lawyers and counselors to get here. While I’m still suffering the fall out of that injury, emotional, physical and financial, I finally have the mental and legal clarity to seek the rdress I believe that I deserve.

I hope this letter speaks to the humane part of you and not just the corporate goddess. I only seek justice, for myself and for my silent, disempowered or disenchanted African sisters. We are also a humanitarian cause. We’re also humankind. Barbara please show me that we are safe working for foreign agencies, even the BINGO’s and that the same rules that protect our female colleagues in head office will protect us in our work spaces scattered in the dark spots for gender rights on the continent too. Do not unilaterally listen to our kinsmen who fill your senior leadership positions in Africa and tell you African women will lie against them about rape or sexual assault or sexual harassment in the workplace because that is the excuse our men give for not tightening rape, sexual assault and sexual harassment laws.

I was a good employee; innovative, result oriented, driven, participatory, nurturing and above all ethical. I was one of few in the region that understood the implementation of the SMS. I was planning a fast track career development in the sector. I was systematically rooting out graft and corruption in the Nigerian program. I was also under systematic attack by the forces of graft and corruption. I wasn’t only working for you, I was also working for my country, for your donors and especially those little old English ladies that have a standing order with their bank to deduct GBP20 every month from their pension check and send to Oxfam GB, even if they are no longer your biggest contributors. I don’t deserve this. It feels so terribly wrong to be dismissed so nonchalantly and left so broken and devastated.

I appeal to you Barbara as the Chief Executive of Oxfam GB with whom all decisions finally rest for some sort of justice, relief, closure, damages and permission to move on. I hope you consider my appeal with wisdom and compassion.

I look forward to hearing from you. In the meantime I remain;

Yours sincerely,

LesleyAgams

Lesley Gene Agams Esq.

 

 

 

This was her reply

 

 

 

Wednesday, May 16, 2012, 10:32 AM

Dear Lesley

Thank you for your letter of 28th April 2012 concerning your period of employment with Oxfam GB.

I was aware of the circumstances surrounding your departure from Oxfam and am deeply saddened to hear how you now feel, and that you attribute this to the way that Oxfam handled your complaint. As you are aware, Oxfam is very concerned about gender inequality and committed to putting poor women’s rights at the heart of what we do. With this in mind I can assure you that Oxfam did take your complaint seriously and followed internal procedures carefully to fully investigate the points that you raised. Unfortunately , like the police, we found that there was insufficient evidence to corroborate your allegation of events that had taken place, some 3 months earlier. The allegation of sexual assault is an issue which we take very seriously and although we could not find evidence to confirm that the assault did take place, the matter was followed up and appropriate action was taken in line with our procedures. I appreciate that you were disappointed by these findings.

I understand that you did speak to both Catherine Layton (HR Adviser) and Martin Knops (Oxfam’s Counsellor) about events that took place whilst you were in the UK. At the time you did not categorise them as a criminal offence of sexual assault but as an ‘incident in a hotel room where you refused to have sex with your manager’ and indeed had asked to speak to them both ‘in confidence’. This confidentiality was maintained by them both as you had requested. Had you allowed Catherine to take this forward on your behalf as one of the options she suggested to you at the time, or indeed expressed it in the more serious language that you are now using, then the situation may have been different. This was the decision that you made at the time and I feel that it is not appropriate of you now to blame them for respecting your request for confidentiality.

With regard to your termination of employment from Oxfam, I am aware that you raised an appeal against this in line with our procedures. The appeal was heard by Kathleen McGarva, the Deputy International Director, and she was satisfied that the termination of your contract complied with the law in Nigeria which is the law that governed your contract of employment and that the termination was not due to sexual victimisation from a senior manager of staff. Kathleen is an experienced senior manager in Oxfam, based in Oxford who had no prior knowledge or involvement of this matter. I am satisfied that she considered your case very carefully in a fair and transparent manner when reaching her conclusion.

I am satisfied that that Oxfam has acted fairly in fully investigating your complaints and allegations and your request for damages is not appropriate.

Thank you for writing to me about bringing this to my attention.  I do wish you the very best for your future.

Best regards

Barbara

Barbara Stocking 

Chief Executive, Oxfam GB  

 

 

Maybe she was right, maybe it was all my fault. Except I’m pretty damn sure I DID describe it as a sexual assault, EXACTLY  as it happened, in very vivid detail too, to both Martin and Catherine.  Whatever could have given them the idea that is was an ‘incident in a hotel room where you refused to have sex with your manager’? (How sleazy does that even sound? Ugh!) Now they would have me second guessing myself!

I thought I was really over it. Just a couple weeks ago I was telling my friend that I had finally recovered from it all except the jack hammering of my heart says maybe not.

How do I feel about it now? I still feel angry. And powerless.

“Honour you anger” Martin Knops said to me all those years ago.

 

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Summary of the Acumen/IDEO Human Centred Design Course: What is Human Centred Design?

September 16, 2015
Human-centered design is a creative approach to problem solving. It’s a process that starts with the people you’re designing for and ends with new solutions that are tailor-made to suit their needs.
 
Human-centered design is a process that can be used across industries and sectors to approach any number of challenges—from product and service design to space or systems design, to name just a few.
 
The human-centered design process has three phases—the Inspiration phase, the Ideation phase, and the Implementation phase. In the end, you’ll know that your solution will be a success because you’ve kept the people you’re looking to serve at the heart of the process.
 
In the Inspiration phase you’ll learn directly from the people you’re designing for as you immerse yourself in their lives and come to deeply understand their needs. In the Ideation phase you’ll make sense of what you learned, identify opportunities for design, and prototype possible solutions. And in the Implementation phase you’ll bring your solution to life, and eventually, to market.
Expect to find yourself shifting gears through the process, moving from concrete observations to highly abstract thinking, and then right back again into the nuts and bolts of your prototype. We call it diverging and converging. You’ll diverge and converge a few times, and with each new cycle you’ll come closer and closer to the solution that is best suited for the people you’re designing for.
 
Design thinking at work – positive deviance ; an approach that looks for solutions among individuals and families in the community who are already doing well.
 
As Monique Sternin, now director of the Positive Deviance Initiative, explains:
 
“Both positive deviance and design thinking are human-centered ap- proaches. Their solutions are relevant to a unique cultural context and will not necessarily work outside that specific situation.”
 
First stage – The inspiration space, the problem or opportunity that motivates people to search for solutions.
 
The Brief – the parameters for the team members
 
Once the brief has been constructed, it is time for the design team to discover what people’s needs are.
 
The starting point – observe the actual experiences of the people as they improvise their way through their daily lives.
 
The second space of the design thinking process is ideation.
 
“To have a good idea you must first have lots of ideas.”
 
To achieve divergent thinking, it is important to have a diverse group of people involved in the process.
 
To operate within an interdisciplinary environment, an individual needs to have strengths in two dimensions—the “T-shaped” person. On the vertical axis, every member of the team needs to possess a depth of skill that allows him or her to make tangible contributions to the outcome. The top of the “T” is where the design thinker is made. It’s about empathy for people and for disciplines beyond one’s own. It tends to be expressed as openness, curiosity, optimism, a tendency toward learning through doing, and experimentation.
 
Interdisciplinary teams typically move into a structured brain- storming process. One rule during the brainstorming process is to defer judgment. Instead, participants are encouraged to come up with as many ideas as possible then move into a process of grouping and sorting ideas.
 
Good ideas naturally rise to the top, whereas the bad ones drop off early on.
 
The third space of the design thinking process is implementation, At the core of the implementation process is prototyping, turning ideas into actual products and services that are then tested, iterated, and refined.
Through prototyping, the design thinking process seeks to uncover unforeseen implementation challenges and unintended consequences in order to have more reliable long-term success.
 
After the prototyping process is finished and the ultimate prod-uct or service has been created, the design team helps create a com- munication strategy.

A Short Review of The Nigerian Youth Policy 

June 30, 2015

All the stakeholders  I spoke to said the same thing about the policy – its not popular and lacks buy in from youths and groups that work with youth. One respondent, a civil society professional said that she participated in a consultation forum in Enugu but the final document was written by consultants without acknowledging other input.

Another respondent, a youth leader and youth development professional said the policy does not represent the wishes and aspirations of Nigeria’s youth.

Long gone are the days when an elite group of patrician gentlemen wrote, propounded and implemented long winded theories about how to help the less fortunate. Best practices include wide spread consultation, participation and inclusion.

The policy did provide some insight into why it defines youth as being being 18 to 35.

“In many countries in Africa, for example, the male transition to adulthood, in terms of achieving the economic and social stability that comes with steady employment, may extend into late twenties and mid thirties.”

Obviously transition to adulthood for women in Africa is assumed and probably tied to their reproductive functions.

Of particular interest to me was the section on female sex workers which focused rehabilitation as a response to HIV infection rates and seems to emphasise that and not workers personal development, their rights as citizens, their economic and social contributions to the country. In which case what is the rationale for treating female sex workers as a separate category from young men and women living with HIV/AIDS?

In section 5.2 gives irrelevant data on youth and education.

The section on gender equality in education ignores completely the special needs of young women in tertiary institutions.

Is this positive youth development?

Despite the claim in the introduction that young men and women should not be seen as a problem but as a force for change, despite the nod to recognition of the positive youth development there is a complete divergence in the rest of the policy.

A comparison with the American and British youth policies reveals the differences in approach and outcome. These documents give SMART goals and provide specific metrics.  Youth and youth group were involved in the process of policy development and are active partners in its implementation. Implementation is dispersed among stakeholders.

Overall implementation of the Nigerian youth policy is too heavily centralised with the Ministry of Youth Development. Meanwhile the Ministry of Youth currently spends over 90% of its annual budget on the NYSC scheme. Its bureaucracy is heavy and prone to abuse and delays.

The 2nd Nigeria Youth Policy 2009 -2012 is due for a review. Efforts to initiate a review of the policy in 2012 were frustrated when the Ministry of Youth Development and the Nigeria Youth Council NYC could not convene a broad base of youth groups to participate.

The NYC has long been politicised. A Commonwealth journalist wrote about them in 2013.  It is unlikely that they or the Ministry can led a participatory and open process.

Commonwealth Youth Policy PAYE here. African Union Youth Charter here.

What Is Wrong With Nigeria’s Definition Of Youth?

June 30, 2015

What is a youth? The UN, the Commonwealth, The AU and Nigeria’s National Youth Policy give different definitions of what is a youth.

According to the UN 

“Youth” is best understood as a period of transition from the dependence of childhood to adulthood’s independence and awareness of our interdependence as members of a community. Youth is a more fluid category than a fixed age-group.”

The Commonwealth defines youth as 15-29 years of age.

The African Youth Charter defines youth as “any individual between 15-35 years of age and seeks to resolve longstanding debates about defining youth within the African context and based on Africa’s development realities.”

The Nigerian National Youth Policy defines youth as anyone between the age of 18 and 35.

The various definitions of youth can be problematic when designing youth programs. There is no standard global definition. Africa and the global south have long insisted that youth is not a range of ages but defined by a diversity of culturally defined social processes that mark the transition from child to adult.

However psychologists propose that there are distinct stages in human psycho-social development that can be used to guide the design of necessary age specific interventions providing support at each stage in life. While they recognise that there is no specific and set age when each stage occurs it offers a coherent guide for programming.

Including a 30 year old in programming for a 20 year old is unlikely to produce equal results for a number of reasons not least of which is the fact that the wide age disparity is likely to distort power relations within the group.

I also think Nigeria’s very broad definition of youth infantilises our young adults and how we treat them. I cannot and should not expect the same behaviour, ability, emotional intelligence or cognitive capacity from a 24 year old and a 30 year old.

It is common to meet western trained youth of 18 or 23 who have a very clear sense of purpose and direction whereas this is a lot less common in Nigeria. Our young are encouraged to be dependent much longer with excuses like the country is ‘hard’ or otherwise ‘not what it used to be’.

A program manager with the British Council told me that many young people are choosing to remain students dependent on parents longer because there were no jobs for them even though it does not improve their chances of a job.

This trend seems strange among people who culturally and historically had elaborate ceremonies to transit teenagers into immediate adulthood with the associated rights and responsibilities.

A downward review of the age range of youth in Nigeria will not only improve program design it will also encourage youth to take on adult responsibility sooner as well as acknowledge them as contributors and a resource for national and global development.

What I’ve Learnt About Nigerian Youth Sector In The Past Few Weeks – Part I

June 30, 2015

Currently, I’m setting up a youth leadership foundation for a client. As part of my pre-planning activities I did an extensive review of the youth development sector in Nigeria.

I learnt a lot. Lets see how much I can capture in 500 words.

According to the National Youth Policy, a youth in Nigeria is anyone from the age of 18 to 35. Before that you are a Child according to the Child’s Rights Act and the Nigerian Constitution. There is a lot of debate about this age in Nigeria.

Some people say that its too old, others insist that age is not the appropriate criteria but when the person actually becomes independent, and in much of Africa they insist that is later than the western average of early 20’s.

Everyone I spoke to said the age definition is political and was more about access to opportunities including travel and leadership development than anything. One of my respondents said that  African delegates were always the oldest at global events.  And I think Nigeria’s PDP infamously made a 75 year old ‘youth leader’. My personal views are here.

The UN defines a youth as anyone between the age of 15 and 24. The Commonwealth uses 15 to 29 years.

According to the National Bureau of Statistics Nigeria’s population reached 167 million people in 2012 and about half of the population are youth, which NBS defined as individuals between 15 and 34 years of age. Half of them only have a primary school education or none at all. An analysis of regional demographics in youth population is in another post here.

The implications of Nigeria’s youth bulge are well articulated in the Nigeria: Next Generation Report here. We can either go boom or bust and the window of opportunity is here and closing. The youth population needs urgent intervention.

Nigeria’s Youth Policy suffers from a lack of buy-in, measurable outcomes or appropriations. While it acknowledges positive youth development defined here  it does nothing to actualise it in the policy and still treats youth as  problem to be solved, read a look at the policy here.

The policy is supposed to be developed with the National Youth Council, the Federal Ministry of Youth and a wide representation of youth . Unfortunately the NYC and the Ministry are hobbled by corruption and politics.  Attempts to review the current youth policy in 2012 fell apart.

A number of youth led or youth focused youth organisations emerged as leaders in the Nigerian youth development space. We’ll look at who they are and what distinguished them here. They are regularly partnered and funded by a handful of foreign funding organisations find more about them here.

More Nigerian individuals and corporations are implementing youth focused programs through philanthropy and CSR that address urgent issues of unemployment and conflict resolution. More about them and their models here. read more about the youth development sector in the global south in the Restless Development Mapping Report here.

I guess there must be a part 2, 3, 4 etc. Links will be activated asap.

Statutory Requirements for Setting Up A Non-Profit Foundation in Nigeria 

June 11, 2015

The Companies and Allied Matters Act, Cap C20, Laws of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 2004 popularly known as “CAMA”, is the primary legislation regulating the registration of corporate entities in Nigeria.

Under CAMA there are two ways to register a not-for-profit organisation – as a company limited by guarantee or as incorporated trustees. Incorporating trustees is far more popular and the procedure is laid out in Part C of CAMA.

Section 590(1) provides that:

“where one or more trustees are appointed by any community of persons bound together by customs, religion, kinship or nationality or by any body or association of persons established for any religious, educational, literary, scientific, social, development, cultural, sporting or charitable purpose, he or they may if so authorized by the community, body or association…apply to the Commission in the manner hereafter provided for registration…as a corporate body.”

Registration by Corporate Affairs Commission in Abuja and online here (good luck opening link) means the trustees jointly become a body corporate with perpetual succession and power to sue and be sued. A body corporate is a legal entity with its own rights and responsibilities.

The trustees individually have the right to hold, acquire and transfer any property and enter contract on behalf of the organisation in the same form and manner as an individual.

The trustees can if they so choose appoint a council or governing body which can include them and give it such administrative and management functions as they deem fit. Trustees will be subject to the directions of the association or of such council or governing body.

Under the Money Laundering (Prohibition) Act 2011 (“MLA”), non-profit organisations are classified as Designated Non-Financial Businesses8 (“DNFB”) and it is mandatory for all DNFB’s to register with the the Special Control Unit Against Money Laundering (SCUML).

(SCUML) is a department of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission currently domiciled in the Federal Ministry of Commerce and Industry with responsibility to monitor, supervise and regulate activities of Designated Non-Financial Businesses and Professions in Nigeria under the provisions of Money Laundering (Prohibition) Act 2011

The Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS) requires all non-profit corporations to register with the integrated tax office closest to their registered office. The Companies Income Tax Act (CITA) exempts non profit corporates from tax so long as profits are not derived from a trade or business but they are required to  pay Value Added Tax (VAT) on certain goods and services. You can pay your taxes online in some offices.

(FIRS has this really cute Tax Calculator on their website, check it out here and go pay your tax)

State and local governments, various ministries and parastatals may also impose their own statutory requirements and it is important to visit all line ministries who you may work with or who may have oversight in your particular field you to find out.